But when it was signed into law five years ago, HB 1804 sparked sheer panic in the community, said Pat Fennell, former president and CEO of the Latino Community Development Agency (LCDA). Many immigrants fled the state immediately. Those who stayed lived in fear.
In the time since, the measure has lost some of its teeth. Although many elements of the original bill remain on the books, Latino immigrants, both documented and undocumented, have returned to the state, in part because the controversy cooled, Fennell said.
In Oklahoma City, we dont have an aggressive city government or an aggressive sheriff on immigration like they do in other cities, she said.
State Sen. Ralph Shortey, R-Oklahoma City, is one of todays loudest voices for anti-illegal immigration legislation. Rep. Randy Terrill, the outspoken author of 1804 who left the Legislature earlier this year, declined an interview for this story and directed all immigration-related requests to Shortey.
Some of these things are very hard to pinpoint, but by getting rid of [illegal] immigrants, we saved the state some money, Shortey said.
Live in the shadows
Although he termed 1804 a success, particularly in preventing undocumented immigrants from receiving state benefits, Shortey added that Oklahoma could and should be less welcoming. Stricter laws in other states, like Arizonas 2010 law that in June was partially dismantled by the U.S. Supreme Court, could reverse the post-1804 exodus.
A federal judge in 2008 struck down a section of HB 1804 requiring private employers to check the immigration status of all new hires. Three years later, the state Supreme Court threw out another part of the bill that denied instate tuition to undocumented college students.
Other parts of the bill seem to be un-enforced. Attorney Richard Klinge, associate director of advocacy and outreach for Catholic Charities, said he hasnt heard of anyone being charged with a felony for harboring or transporting an undocumented immigrant.
But if the bill was meant to create a climate of fear, it has been successful.
The sad thing is it did, and continues to, put fear into people who have to continue to live in the shadows, he said.
Oklahomas Hispanic population grew by more than 85 percent from 2000 to 2010, while the general population grew by 9 percent, according to the U.S. Census. Oklahoma City Public Schools has seen a steady increase in Hispanic students, the largest ethnic group served by the district. During the 2010-2011 school year, 45 percent of students were Hispanic, more than double the number of white students.
The large number of young Latinos is notable because a driving force behind the population growth is not illegal immigration, but a high birthrate. Each new generation increases the number of legal citizens.
There is now a massive baby boom thats going to overshadow that other baby boom, said Ruben Aragon, the new president and CEO of LCDA.
The legacy of HB 1804 is unsettled in the Legislature. Immigration-related legislation is brought back to the floor with each new session. Although most bills seek ways to be tougher on immigration, some tilt in the opposite direction. But all are driven by fundamental arguments over the economy.
Sen. Harry Coates of Seminole, the only Republican who voted against HB 1804, authored several bills aiming to create a state guest-worker program. Oklahomas economy hasnt done as well as it could have because 1804 scared away irreplaceable workers, he said.
Im not talking about amnesty, said Coates. Im talking about a work permit.
Construction and agriculture in
the state have been hurt as undocumented workers cross the border into
Texas where companies can hire them and compete for contracts in
Oklahoma, he said.
Shortey disputes that notion. Sen. Coatess idea was basically to pander to illegal immigrants, Shortey said.
guest-worker program would be unfair because undocumented workers
accept artificially lowered wages that skilled American workers cannot
live on, according to Shortey.
said he feels ostracized by his own party. But he was encouraged when
delegates at the Republican National Convention in August approved a
platform that includes a willingness to consider the merits of a guest
Maybe the Republicans are waking up, he said, but then again maybe this was just election-year pandering.
the last legislative session, Shortey introduced a bill enabling state
law enforcement officers to seize property involved with illegal
immigration (including vehicles used to transport undocumented workers).
The bill never made it to the House floor, but Shortey said he will
keep trying to get it heard, calling the departing House Speaker Kris
Steele unapologetically pro-illegal immigration.
think in the next couple years youll see a lot more bills from people
having to deal with problems in their own districts, he said.
A thriving community
in south Oklahoma City, which comprises a large portion of Shorteys
district, Latino-owned businesses have become fixtures in many
and legal residents are increasingly choosing to write their own
paychecks, Fennell said. In particular she has noticed an increase in
Latina women becoming entrepreneurs. Any new business benefits the
economy, and Hispanics are now more likely to open a business than any
other group, Aragon said.
Hispanic community has become such an important bedrock in our economy
because of the demographic shift in our country, Klinge said.
Hernandez opened Tango Public Relations in Capitol Hill seven years
ago. His business focuses on creating bridges between corporations and
the Latino community. In general, Hispanics are young and interested in
putting down roots, which makes them a valuable new customer base,
seen many, many corporate companies show interest in and want to learn
more about the Hispanic commu nity in Oklahoma City, he said As
executive director of Capitol Hill Main Street, a nonprofit organization
that tries to attract new tenants to the neighborhood, Hernandez has
also seen more small businesses spring up. He estimates about half of
the Capitol Hill buildings are now Latino-owned, an indication of the
communitys key role in revitalizing the district.
HB 1804 took effect, there wasnt as much of an economic slump as a
general malaise in south Oklahoma City. Some people left, which of
course hit businesses.
most stayed, he said. It affected the overall, day-to-day lifestyle
for the Hispanic community, he said. Unfortunately, the unknown
created a lot of fear in people.
years later the Hispanic community is growing and so is the economy. In
Oklahoma City, at least, the scars from 1804 have been covered by a big
community that isnt going to leave, he said.
agreed that if all Oklahoma Citys undocumented immigrants were to
leave, windows in his district would be shuttered, but said thats a
necessary drawback to enforcing federal law. Any building housing a
business owned by an undocumented worker is an illgotten gain.
would be a lot of empty buildings, a lot of empty land, but there would
be someone else who would come along and develop it, he said.
for the Latino community hope respect for cultural diversity hasnt
been lost in the fracas. Becoming immersed in another culture through
his legal advocacy has been an enriching experience, Klinge said.
And long-standing Oklahoma values, Aragon said, are the same as Hispanic values.
A strong faith, strong family values and a strong work ethic those are Hispanic values, he said.